آشنایی با Adverb Clause (جمله واره قیدی) در زبان انگلیسی

آشنایی با Adverb Clause

آشنایی با Adverb Clause

آشنایی با Adverb Clause یا جمله واره های قیدی

جمله واره قیدی یا Adverb Clause، گروهی از کلمات هست که نقش یک قید را در جمله بازی میکند به این معنا که توضیحاتی بیشتر ارایه میکند. این جمله واره میتواند اطلاعاتی بیشتری درباره یک فعل، یک قید دیگر، یا یک صفت ارایه کند. به طور کلی میتوان گفت این جمله واره ها اطلاعاتی در مورد زمان، مکان، دلیل، چگونگی، اندازه، شرایط روی دادن یک عمل و …. در جمله ارایه میکنند.

اما باید توجه داشت که جمله واره های قیدی به هر گروهی از کلمات گفته نمیشود و یک “جمله واره” حتما باید یک فاعل و یک فعل داشته باشد. از دیگری ویژگی های یک جمله واره قیدی این است که با یک حرف ربط وابسته(Subordinating Conjunction) مثل “after“، “if“، “because” و “although” آغاز میشود. بنابراین اگر گروهی از کلمات را در یک جمله دیدید که عملکردی شبیه به قید دارند و اطلاعات بیشتر ارائه میکنند اما فاعل و فعل ندارد، این مجموعه یک عبارت قیدی(Adverb Phrase) هست ودر سرفصل جداگانه بررسی میشود.

با استفاده از جمله واره های قیدی میتوانیم اطلاعات دقیق و کامل تری را در رایتینگ ارایه کنیم. این جمله واره ها بسیار کاربردی و قابل انعطاف هستند و میتوان از آن ها در آغاز، میان و پایان جمله استفاده کرد. همچنین میتوان آن ها را به شکلی که در تصویر بالا مشخص هست بر پایه نوع اطلاعاتی که ارایه میکنند دسته بندی کرد.

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هشت گروه جمله واره های قیدی

جمله واره های قیدی را به صورتی که در تصویر زیر مشخص هست میتوان به چندین گروه دسته بندی کرد:

آشنایی با Adverb Clause

1. جمله واره های قیدی Time

این جمله واره به این اشاره دارد که چه زمانی عمل اتفاق افتاده. حروف ربط (Subordinating Conjunction) مورد استفاده در این جمله واره ها عبارتند از when , whenever , until , after , once , while , as , since , before و as soon as 

مثال های زیر را ببینید:

When people try to achieve a certain goal in their life, they find meaning and purpose regardless of the result. 

As soon as the man saw his wife, he ran away.

Before she completed the cooking, the visitors had left.

After the church service, the children went to the zoo.

When the war ended, many families returned to their abandoned homes.

While she was cooking, I came in.

The boy ran away when he saw the police.

The thief froze as soon as he heard the sirens.

His feeding pattern had changed since she came around.

Until he comes, nobody will leave the house.

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2. جمله واره های قیدی Place

این جمله واره به این اشاره دارد که در کجا عمل اتفاق افتاده. حروف ربط مورد استفاده در این جمله واره ها عبارتند از where , anywhere, wherever و everywhere

مثال های زیر را ببینید:

Most youth are attracted to large cities, where there are more facilities and higher chance of employment. 

Jane sat where her mother had prepared for her friend.

I will go wherever you go.

She promised to look for the purse wherever she might find it.

Send us to wherever you want to.

The plane crashed where it was difficult to locate.

He travelled where no one could reach him.

She fell where the makeshift wooden bridge was weak.

I will go wherever you go.

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3. جمله واره های قیدی Condition

این جمله واره، شرطی که فعل در جمله اصلی توضیح آن را میدهد را بازگو میکند. حروف ربط مورد استفاده در این جمله واره ها عبارتند از  unless ,even if, if, only if و in case 

مثال های زیر را ببینید:

Unless the international organizations provide immediate help, hunger will prevail. 

I will only attend the event if you personally invite me.

Whether she likes it or not, she must complete her education in Nigeria.

There will be no need to go to court provided you sign the papers.

Unless we embark on industrial action, the government will not listen to our grievances.

As long as you cooperate, there would be no problem.

 

4. جمله واره های قیدی Manner

این جمله واره به  چگونگی روی دادن عمل اشاره دارد. حروف ربط مورد استفاده در این جمله واره ها عبارتند از as if، as though، so that و as

مثال های زیر را ببینید:

Some people try so hard to own a house as if it is the most important goal in their life. 

The man was talking as if she was the leader of the group.

The choir sang as though the heavens would fall.

She performed so excellently that she got a scholarship.

Please do it (exactly) as I instructed.

(Just) as sugar attracts an ant (so) her beauty and congeniality attract customers to her shop.

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5. جمله واره های قیدی Reason 

این جمله واره دلیل عملی که اتفاق افتاده(فعل) را برای ما بازگو میکند. حروف ربط مورد استفاده در این جمله واره ها عبارتند از as, because, that و since 

مثال های زیر را ببینید:

Since employees are required to perform well in international settings, learning a second language seems to be a necessity these days. 

The man works hard because he has debts to offset.

Because he has money, he believes he can get away with the crime.

He was denied entrance as he could not pay the required fees.

He was not happy that he could not make the list.

His people were angry that he was not elected their representative.

She may not be charged to court since she has returned the stolen funds.

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6. جمله واره های قیدی Concession یا Contrast

این جمله واره، گفته ای برخلاف گفته جمله اصلی را مطرح میکند. حروف ربط مورد استفاده در این جمله واره ها عبارتند از although، though، while، even though، despite و in spite of

مثال های زیر را ببینید:

Although many teenagers may feel annoyed, such limiting rules is proven to a tool against juvenile delinquency. 

Although he was indisposed, he went to the office.

Though he was a trained teacher, he detests teaching.

While she cannot speak French, she likes visiting Francophone countries.

Even though he cannot drive, he loves cars.

They eat out every weekend though they have a cook.

Though the kids are poor, they are very lively and happy.

Although he loves to take her out, his father would not allow him.

While it is true that investments pay, there is a need to be knowledgeable about business.

Despite the fact that he read very well, he failed the examination.

In spite of his popularity, he was not recognised.

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7. جمله واره های قیدی Purpose 

این جمله واره دلیل انجام عمل مطرح شده توسط فعل را توضیح میدهد. حروف ربط مورد استفاده در این جمله واره ها عبارتند از such as that, so that, و in order that

مثال های زیر را ببینید:

He reads so hard so that he can graduate top of his class.

The ceremony was rounded off in order that attendees might get to their destinations on time.

We work that we may earn and have to give.

We should work smarter and not harder so that we will not wear out our bodies.

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8. جمله واره های قیدی Degree یا Comparison

این جمله واره، مقایسه ای با وضعیت توصیف شده در فعل اصلی را مطرح میکند. حروف ربط مورد استفاده در این جمله واره ها عبارتند از as, than, as…as و so…as

مثال های زیر را ببینید:

She is as loquacious as she is ill-mannered.

The factory is bigger than the one in the capital city.

The students were quicker in solving the sums than I expected.

You are not as troublesome as your brother.

The villains are as cunning as a fox

We are as qualified as their own team.

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جمله واره قیدی در آغاز جمله

زمانی که جمله واره قیدی در آغاز جمله قرار میگیرد باید بعد از آن یک ویرگول گذاشته شود. مثال های زیر را ببینید:

Whether you like it or not, you have to go to bed now.

If you pay your bills on time, you can have a good credit score.

Unless you run fast, you will miss the bus.

Because he loved her, he didn’t believe she was having an affair.

Once they saw the car coming, the birds flew away from the road.

Although she has a business degree, she is working as a retail clerk.

As we bought the tickets, the overture was beginning.

Before we go on vacation, we must make reservations

Since I’ll be working late, I’ll eat downtown.

Now that everyone has left the party, we need to start cleaning.

Unless you put in more hours, I cannot recommend you for the promotion.

As soon as I saw you, I knew something was wrong.

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جمله واره قیدی در میان جمله

زمانی که جمله واره قیدی در میان جمله قرار میگیرد باید در دو طرف آن ویرگول گذاشته شود و البته این حالت خیلی متداول نیست. مثال های زیر را ببینید:

My sister, when she is angry, will turn red in the face.

Elephants, although they are large, are not predators.

Chocolate, because it has a low melting point, can be difficult to bake with.

He remembered, after he left the house, that he needed to mail the thank you cards.

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جمله واره قیدی در پایان جمله

زمانی که جمله واره قیدی در پایان جمله قرار میگیرد نیازی به ویرگول نخواهد داشت. مثال های زیر را ببینید:

Marty kept his schedule open in case his wife went into labor.

You must keep practicing the song until you get it right.

Give us a call when you get back from your trip.

We need to find the bar where they asked us to wait.

The fireworks show will start after the sun goes down.

The cat made herself at home in the apartment as if she had always lived there.

Frank ran the race as though his life depended on it.

We can swim in the pool as soon as you put on sunscreen.

I never knew how wonderful life could be until I met you.

You need to remain calm even if everyone else panics.

The day felt long because we had nothing to do.

I won’t allow you to see that movie even though you are old enough to go.

We can get some new clothes as long as the store is open late.

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شناسایی جمله واره قیدی در جمله

به یاد داشته باشید برای شناسایی اینکه آیا گروهی از کلمات یک جمله واره قیدی هستند یا خیر باید به فاعل و فعل دقت کنید. اگر هر دوی این موارد وجود دارند و این گروه از کلمات به سوالاتی همچون “چه موقع”، “چرا”، “چگونه” و “کجا” پاسخ میدهند، عبارت مربوطه یک جمله واره قیدی هست. در پایان پیشنهاد میکنیم نگاهی هم به سرفصل عبارت های قیدی(Adverb Phrase) داشته باشید و تفاوت آن را با جمله واره های قیدی(Adverb Clause) که در بالا توضیح داده شد بررسی کنید.

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منابع: 

https://akademia.com.ng/what-is-an-adverbial-clause-types-functions-and-examples

https://zabanhome.ir/learn-english/grammar/adverb-clauses

https://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-adverb-clauses.html

 

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1_they are so busy that they couldn’t go to seminar
2_since the mobile has become common gadget ,many families have problem with their children
3_most people are untreated in modern cities ,where they can be successful in their lives
4_as long as you are hard-working,there wouldn’t be problem in achieving success
5_since employers hire educated people ,studing in university is needed