زمان گذشته کامل ساده
فرمول : Had+قسمت سوم فعل
had + past participle they had listened to his music
had not+ past participle they hadn’t listened to his music
had … +- past participle? Had they listened to his music?
کاربردهای زمان گذشته کامل Past Perfect Simple
- به عملی در گذشته اشاره دارد که قبل از عمل دیگری انجام گرفته است.
His father was a composer and his grandfather had also been a musician. (Mozart’s
Grandfather was a musician and then later his father became a composer)
نکته:گاهی اوقاتمی توانیم کلماتی مانند just , alreadyرا با این زمان به کار ببریم. توجه داشته باشید که این قیدها بین فعل کمکی و فعل اصلی قرار می گیرند.
By the time he was 17, Mozart’s reputation had already begun to spread through Europe.
نکته: درصورتی که یک سری عمل در گذشته به صورت همزمان اتفاق افتاده باشند معمولا برای اشاره به آنها از زمان گذشته ساده استفاده می کنیم و نه زمان گذشته کامل.
His grandfather was a musician and his father was also a composer.
از کلماتی مانند when،as soon as ، by the time، after، برای نشان دادن ترتیب زمانی در گذشته اشاره می کنیم.
When Mozart was born, five of his siblings had already died. (Mozart’s siblings died first, then Mozart was born)
به تفاوت معنایی بین دو جمله زیر دقت کنید
When I got home, my husband cooked dinner. (= I got home and then my husband cooked dinner)
I got home. my husband cooked dinner
When I got home1 my husband had cooked dinner: (= my husband cooked dinner before I got home)
my husband had cooked dinner. I got home.
- برای صحبت کردن در مورد عملی که در گذشته قبل از عمل دیگر انجام گرفته است. در این شرایط غالبا از کلماتی مانند always, sometimes, never, before, by استفاده می شود.
His family was richer than they had ever been before.(= they were not as rich at any time before this point in the past)
By the time he was six, the little boy had written a composition of his own
- برای گزارش رویدادهای گذشته با استفاده از افعال گزارشی(در تصویر زیر آمده است)
The man told me he had met my father a long time before
درباره فعل های گزارشی: